Principles Of Ayurveda
The principles of ayurveda provide us the key for healthy living. The main objectives of ayurveda are to maintain the health of an individual and to cure the unhealthy one. It tells that, we all are a part of universe and the same element, which constitutes the universe, also constitutes our body too. The body of a human being is just like a micro-universe and functions in a similar manner as the universe. We are created from the same raw material. Things present outside us are also present within us. Ayurveda gives us the knowledge of life. Human body is not only a mass of organ, tissues and other systems but a complex combination of senses, mind, body and soul. Thus, a lot of physical and mental activities are going inside and outside the body. So, in order to explain the functional complexity of human body some principles were set in ayurveda. These principles describe the dosa, dhatu, mala, agni, panchmahabhutas as the functional unit of life.
The basic principles of Ayurveda are: -
1) The Trigunas- These are the three basic fundamental energies, which regulate the nature of a person. These are - Satya, Rajas and Tamas.
Satva means light, pleasure, clarity and purities, which cannot be disturbed in any way. It is free from all diseases. It activates all the sense organs to gain knowledge.
Rajas are the most active guna with lots of action and passion, which arises due to intense desire.
Tamas is all those which disturbs mentally and physically. It is the bad side of mind. It brings laziness, sleep, and delusion.
2) The Panchmahabhutas - According to veda everything in this earth is made up five basic elements- Akasha (Space),Vayu (Air),Teja or Agni(Fire),Jala(Water) and Prithvi (Earth). These accounts for Sound, Touch, Vision, Taste, and Smell respectively. Veda tells that everything in this universe have some proportion of each of these five elements.
3) The Tridosas - There are three dosas present within us. These are- Vata(air),Pitta(bile)and Kapha(Phlegm). These accounts for the regulation of all the physiological and physical activities of an organism. These are the three different form of energy.
Among the three dosas, vata is the most important as all the body functions such as metabolism, ejaculation of semen, response of tissues, nervous system, elimination of waste products from our body are stimulated by Vata.
The Pitta dosa regulates the body temperature. The dominated area of Pitta is the digestive system of body. These body secretions, e.g. digestive juices, hameoglobin are types of pitta.
Kappa provides strength to us. The moistness, lubrications, fertility, stability, memory are provided by kappa. It dominated the area of chest, neck, stomach, nose and tongue. It is heaviest of all the doshas.
4) The Saptdhatus: - The Sapta(seven) Dhatus (tissues) elements are the basis for the formation of the means of nourishment and growth of our body as well as mind.
Rasa (fluid) Dhatu ? It is formed as a result of digestion of food material which provides nourishment to each and every tissue and cell of the body.
Rakta (blood) Dhatu ? Blood is the basis of our life and is most important for our survival as it is responsible for providing nourishment to the blood tissues and also provides physical strength and colour to the body.
Mamsa Dhatu ? The muscle tissue, its main function is to provide physical strength and support for the meda dhatu i.e. fat.
Meda (fat) Dhatu ? It includes the adipose tissue and provides support to asthi dhatu.It also lubricates the body.
Asthi Dhatu ? It includes the bone tissues, including cartilages; it gives nourishment to the majja dhatu and provides support to the mamsa dhatu.
Majja Dhatu? It is the yellow and red bone marrow tissue, its main function is to fill up the asthi.
Shukra Dhatu ? They are the reproductive tissue, which helps in reproduction.
5) The Trimalas: - The wastes products secreted or released after all the metabolic process of body are calles the malas. The three primary malas are - Purisa (faeces), Mutra (urine) and Sveda (sweat).
Purisa (faeces) are the waste product left after the absorption of important materials by small and large intestine after digestion. The unused materials are left in the form of solid faeces. If faeces are not eliminated at regular basis it can lead to abdominal pain, flatulence, constipation or diarrohea. It can be also be responsible for diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, low-back pain, asthma, bronchitis as well as stomach ulcers and irritable bowels.
Murta (Urine) is the unused liquid material which should be eliminated from our body in regular time interval lacking of which can lead to several health problems. Such as, kidney stones, urinary infections, cystitis, abdominal pain and bladder disorders.
Sveda (sweat) is the third mala, which is a result of metabolism of fatty tissues, which is eliminated by our body in the form of sweat from the body pores. It is responsible for maintaining our body temperature and also for electrolytic balance. If there is any imbalance in this, it can lead to disorders as infections, itching/burning sensation over the body, loss of fluid balance and reduced body temperature.
6) The TrayodosaAgni: - These are the biological fire present within us, which are mainly related to the digestive system. It regulates the digestion in our body, as it is acidic in nature. Maintaining a balance form of agni in our body is very important as heat is very importand for the generation of energy.
According to veda there are 13 types of agni predent in our body. The most important of them are - Jatharagni (gastric fire), SaptaDhatvagni and PanchaBhutagni.
Thus, it can be inferred that all ayurvedic treatments whether it be herbs, diet, yoga or meditation are based on these principles of ayurveda that are tridosa (Vata,Pitta and Kapha) which governs the creation, functioning and destruction of body tissues as well all the digestion and excretion of waste materials. Each individual is made of some unique combination of five elements called the
panchmahabhutas (space,air,fire,water and earth). Understanding the right combination of these elements is very important to decide the ayurvrdic treatment for an individual. So,
pancamahabhutas acts as the base for all diagnosis & treatment therapies in
ayurveda and has served as a most valuable theory for physicians to detect and treat illness of the body and mind successfully for centuries. Similarly, The
Saptdhatus governs the proper functioning and growth of the body tissues by providing them proper nourishment. This accounts for the waste material, which are to be eliminated from our body regularly. The last principle of ayurveda, the
trayodosaagni governs the gastric fire present inside our body utilized in the digestion of food material. So, all the principles are interlinked to each other and compliment each other?s proper functioning.